Medical Imaging Major

College of Health Sciences

Department Chair Elaine Halesey, EdD, RT, (R)(QM)

Faculty and Staff

Lynn Blazaskie, Clinical Instructor, Medical Imaging, BS College Misericordia

Gina Capitano, Assistant Professor of Medical Imaging, BS College Misericordia, MS Misericordia University

Elaine D. Halesey, Professor of Medical Imaging, AAS College Misericordia; BS Bloomsburg University; MS College Misericordia; EdD Nova Southeastern University

Paula Pate-Schloder, Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, AS Pima Community College-Tucson; BS Northern Arizona University-Flagstaff; MS College Misericordia

Loraine D. Zelna, Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, BS Bloomsburg University; MS College Misericordia

Degree BS, Medical Imaging

Options: Management Minor; General Track; BS/MS in
Organizational Management; Combined BS/Certificate in Diagnostic Medical Sonography

The medical imaging program is accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology 20 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 2850, Chicago, IL 60606-3182 phone: (312)704-5300 as well as by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The most recent accreditation review in 2006 awarded the program the maximum period that could be granted. The next review is scheduled for 2014.

With a focus on radiography, the program provides students with didactic and laboratory instruction in conjunction with practical application to human subjects. This instruction provides students with knowledge and practical skills necessary to assume positions in diagnostic radiology or other imaging modalities, or to pursue certification in specialty areas. Students are eligible to sit for the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists Examination in radiography upon graduation.


The medical imaging department subscribes to the philosophy of the university and believes that the radiologic technologist is an integral member of the health care team. Our program is designed to provide the professional skills, progressive maturity, and the intellectual, social, emotional, and spiritual values for the student to be entrusted with the responsibilities that go along with being a member of the health care team.

The curriculum is based on these philosophical and theological implications, making it necessary for the student to learn the necessary scientific principles as well as accept responsibilities for the patient, fellow human beings, the profession, and self.

The philosophy, then, of the medical imaging program is to educate the student to become a holistic and professional person who is not only educated in the art and science of medical imaging, but one who also, through education and experience, has become a well-rounded, mature, concerned, and skilled professional. In addition, the program will strive:

  • To continue improvements in the educational program in radiography to serve the increasing needs of individuals desiring to be radiologic technologists.
  • To maintain accreditation with national organizations in the delivery of radiography education.
  • To promote continuing education with a liberal arts component for non-traditional students in the field of medical imaging.
  • To participate in professional and community activities for the purpose of bringing education, service and research together for the improvement of health care delivery.
  • To educate the individual to become a holistic and professional person, that is, one who is not only educated in the art and science of medical imaging, but who, through education and experience, has become a well-rounded, mature, concerned and skilled professional.

Program Goals:

Goal 1. Clinical Performance and Competence

Students will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to function as an entry-level radiologic technologist.

Goal 2. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking

Students will demonstrate problem solving and critical thinking skills.

Goal 3. Communication

Students will demonstrate effective communication skills with patients, staff, peers and other health care professionals.

Goal 4. Professional Growth and Development

Students /graduates will demonstrate evidence of professional development and/or continuing education.

Goal 5. Overall Program Effectiveness

The program will graduate competent, employable, entry-level radiologic technologists in a timely manner.


The bachelor of science degree in medical imaging incorporates the university's core curriculum requirements that provide a liberal arts foundation. Building on the broad-based general education, the program provides all necessary course work as mandated by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT), a national accrediting agency for medical imaging programs in the United States.

Students have the opportunity to pursue one of four degree options, which reflect the diversity of career paths in medical imaging. All four of the curricula prepare students to be radiographers, and no matter what option is chosen, students at the same level in the program will be enrolled in the same medical imaging courses.

Option 1: BS, Medical Imaging: General Program

This curriculum provides the same solid medical imaging education as the other options, but allows for more flexibility to pursue other areas of interest through free electives.

Option 2: BS, Medical Imaging, Management Minor

This curriculum provides students with a strong background in the skills and theory necessary for supervisory or administrative positions.

Option 3: BS, Medical Imaging with MS, Organizational Management (OM)

Another option within the undergraduate degree in medical imaging is to pursue a combined five-year, BS/MS degree. Students considering pursuing the minor in management track within the BS major may wish to consider expanding that education to an earned master's degree. This option provides students with the knowledge and skills to function in positions of medical imaging services by using management skills in organizational environments.

Within the organizational management curriculum is the choice for students to specialize in either human resources or management. Upon successful completion of the medical imaging requirements after year four, students are eligible to sit for the national certification exam in radiography. Upon successful completion of the fifth-year requirements, students will be awarded a master of science in organizational management (OM). In the event a student pursues this option but decides not to complete the fifth year, he or she can still earn a BS in Medical Imaging with a minor in management, providing all undergraduate requirements for those areas are met.

Entrance requirements for both the medical imaging major and graduate program in OM must be met, and an academic advisor from each program will be assigned. Admission into the graduate program is not guaranteed. Separate application to the graduate program is required during the junior year. Additional details about this option can be obtained from the director of either program.

Admission Criteria

In addition to the admission criteria for the graduate Organizational Management (OM) program:

  1. Students wishing to pursue the combined BS/MS track must notify the director of the OM program, in writing, of their intent to pursue this degree. This letter is to be submitted during the spring semester of the junior year, and a copy provided to their medical imaging advisor.
  2. During the fall semester, senior year, students must submit the completed graduate application (obtain from the Center for Adult and Continuing Education). A minimum overall GPA of 2.8 is required in order to apply.
  3. Because formal admission cannot be granted until a student earns an undergraduate degree, students must notify the director of the OM program , in writing, once he/she has graduated, indicating the intent to pursue this degree. Applicants are eligible for full admission to the graduate program providing they meet the admission criteria outlined in the OM section of this catalog.

For complete information on the admission requirements for the master of science in organizational management see page 373.

Option 4: BS Medical Imaging, Certificate-Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS)

This curriculum combines both the medical imaging education with the sonography program to prepare students to become highly qualified individuals in both disciplines, with the ability to perform diagnostic patient services in both diagnostic radiography and sonography.

Entrance requirements for both the medical imaging major and certificate in diagnostic medical sonography must be met, and an academic advisor from each program will be assigned. Admission to the DMS program is not guaranteed. Students must submit a separate application to the chair of the DMS program during their junior year. Additional details about this option can be obtained from the director of either program.

Internship Option

The internship option is an intensive experience in a particular specialty area of medical imaging in order to gain cross-training and/or experience under the direct supervision of a radiologic technologist skilled in that area. The student has the option of applying for an internship in one of the following areas (availability of areas may vary depending upon commitments from clinical education centers): CT, nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography, cardiac catheterization, special procedures, bone densitometry, or radiation oncology.


In addition to the general policies of Misericordia University, the following regulations apply:

Transfer students will be considered, providing they meet the minimal overall GPA requirements of 2.75, the entrance requirements are met, and space is available. However, they must follow the sequence of courses for the major as listed in the catalog beginning with the fall semester sophomore year. Depending upon the number of credits accepted for transfer, students may complete all graduation requirements for the medical imaging program by December of the senior year. Grades of "C-" or below from external schools do not transfer.

The medical imaging program has formal articulation agreements with both Luzerne County Community College's Associate in Science Degree in General Studies Program and Keystone College's Associate Degree in Applied Science in Allied Health (Radiologic Technology) Program. Graduates of either program who have successfully completed the stated curricula may enter Misericordia's Medical Imaging Program at the professional level under the dual-admission agreement.

Classification of Students

Due to the sequential nature of the medical imaging curricula, students are identified in levels, regardless of their standing according to the program's classification, as:


Those students enrolled in MI 100, Introduction to Medical Imaging;


Those students enrolled in MI 112, Methods of Patient Care (fall), and MI 140, Clinic I (spring);


Those students enrolled in MI 225, Clinic III (fall), and MI 245, Clinic IV (spring);


Those students enrolled in MI 265, Clinic VI (fall), and MI 275, Clinic VII (spring).

Clinical Placement/Experience

To be eligible for clinical placement, a student must have completed all prerequisite courses that apply toward the major and meet the minimum stated overall and major GPA for program retention. Once a student is selected for placement in a clinical education center, the complete set of the policies and procedures as published in the program relating to the clinic is expected to be read thoroughly by each student and will be reviewed by clinical faculty prior to the start of the clinical experience. Placements are determined by the clinical coordinator and program director as determined by the total number of placements approved by our accrediting body. Students may have to travel out of the immediate area to one of the sites listed below. Students will be charged two (2) credits of tuition at the part-time rate for summer clinical experiences, MI 160 and MI 260.

Students are required to provide their own transportation to and from the clinical education centers. Misericordia University is currently affiliated with the following clinical education centers:

Center for Diagnostic Imaging (CDI), Forty Fort, Pennsylvania

Geisinger Regional Ambulatory Campus, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Geisinger Wyoming Valley Medical Center, Plains Township, Pennsylvania

Geisinger Wyoming Valley Medical Building, Plains Township, Pennsylvania

Greater Hazleton Health Alliance, Hazleton, Pennsylvania

Hazleton Health & Wellness Center-Advanced Imaging- Hazleton, Pennsylvania

Marian Community Hospital, Carbondale, Pennsylvania*

Mercy Health Partners, Scranton, Pennsylvania

Mercy Tyler Hospital, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

Moses Taylor Hospital, Scranton, Pennsylvania

Redi Care Medical Center, Taylor, Pennsylvania

Veteran's Administration Medical Center, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Viewmont Medical Services, Scranton, Pennsylvania

Vision Imaging of Kingston, Kingston, Pennsylvania

Wilkes-Barre Imaging Center, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania*

Additional clinical education centers available to students during their senior year are:

Advanced Imaging Specialists, Dunmore, Pennsylvania

Chiavacci Orthopedics, PC, Old Forge, Pennsylvania*

Community Medical Center, Scranton, Pennsylvania

Lehigh Valley Hospital, Allentown, Pennsylvania (Limited basis based on CI availability)*

Northeast Radiation Oncology Centers (NROC), Dunmore and Scranton, Pennsylvania

Northeastern Pennsylvania Imaging Center (NEPIC), Scranton, Pennsylvania

Professional Radiation Oncology Partners/Prime Med Imaging, Scranton, Pennsylvania

Radiation Medicine Specialists, Forty Fort, Pennsylvania

Valley Advanced Imaging & MRI- Easton, Pennsylvania

Wyoming Valley Health Care System, Inc., General Campus, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Wyoming Valley Health Care System, Inc., Saxton Pavilion, Edwardsville, Pennsylvania

Wyoming Valley Imaging Center, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania*

*Inactive Sites

Health Examination

Before students can begin the clinical experience, they must submit a health clearance form report each year they are enrolled in a clinical experience. A complete list of required exams and immunizations will be provided to all medical imaging majors in the summer prior to their first clinical rotation.

The health clearance form must be submitted to the medical imaging clinical coordinator by the student and as one complete packet no later than the date specified in correspondence by the department chair. Normal results are good for one year from the date of test.

Special Expenses

In addition to tuition and fees, expenses for the medical imaging major may include CPR certification and re-certification, malpractice liability insurance, uniforms, American Registry Examination fee, health examination fees, immunization fees, and fee for criminal record checks. A fee will be charged to the student's bill for the sophomore year to cover the cost of: image identification markers; name tag; radiation badges; student handbooks; log book; and malpractice insurance. In the junior and senior years, a fee will be charged for malpractice insurance and radiation badges. Additional expense incurred, such as fee for criminal background checks or American Registry Examination, are paid directly by the student to the respective agency.

Admission, Retention, and Graduation Requirements

The following policies with respect to retention, promotion, graduation, probation, and dismissal supersede any policy statements and/or information set forth in previous University catalogs.

Admission to Medical Imaging

A candidate who wants to be considered for the medical imaging program must meet the university's general admissions requirements. In addition, a student applying for admission should also have completed at least three years of high school mathematics and one year of biology, achieving a minimum grade of "C" in each course. Chemistry and physics are recommended but not required. A minimum combined SAT score of 950 (math and verbal) is required. The statement regarding the program's essential functions, pregnancy policy, and American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) exam eligibility policy will be sent to all accepted students.

For external transfer students and present Misericordia students wishing to change majors, advanced placement at the sophomore program level may be considered: providing clinical space is available; the student has a minimum GPA of 2.75; has earned a minimum of 24 credits that apply toward the major; and all pre-admission criteria have been met, including BIO 121 and BIO 122, or equivalent with a minimum grade of "C-" if taken at Misericordia University. Interested students should submit their request letter to the department chairperson.

Off-campus courses require a minimum grade of "C" to transfer, per university policy.


First-Year Program Level Students

Cumulative GPA of 2.3 at the end of the spring semester. Students will be placed on program probation at the end of the fall semester if the minimum 2.3 has not been met and must meet the requirement upon completion of the spring semester. Minimum grade of "C-" in MI 100, and BIO 121 and BIO 122 or BIO 211/212 taken at this level.

Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Program Level Students

Minimum cumulative GPA of 2.3 both overall and also in the major (based on MI coded courses) at the end of each semester. A minimum grade of "C-" in all MI coded courses, BIO 121, BIO 122, PHY 117, and PHY 118. Students will be placed on program probation for the following semester if the GPA requirement is not met. Students must meet the GPA requirement by the end of the next semester (fall/spring) to be retained in the major. Once the GPA is met and the student is off probation, the GPA cannot fall below the stated minimum. A student can only be on program probation one time. Students will be dismissed from the program if the minimum grade of "C-" is not earned in all MI courses, PHY 117 and PHY 118, and BIO 121 and BIO 122 or approved equivalent.

Additional Retention Requirements:

  1. Submission of CPR certification to the clinical coordinator prior to the start of clinic and re-certification prior to expiration as long as the student is enrolled in a clinical experience. The student is responsible for attending to expiration dates.
  2. Submission of the health clearance form to the clinical coordinator which confirms the student's ability to successfully fulfill all program requirements. This is required yearly.
  3. Yearly submission of results of criminal record checks to the department chair.
  4. Documentation of HIPAA education prior to Clinic I.

Note: A.–C. above must be kept current throughout the program.

Graduation Requirements:

GPA of 2.3, as well as in the major courses, minimum of 125 credits, depending on the track chosen, a score at or above 74 percent on the assessment test administered in MI 415, Senior Seminar, and satisfactory completion of all university requirements (both financial and academic).


The student will be placed on program probation for the following semester if any one of the following occurs:

  1. The required grade point average is below the stipulated requirement.
  2. The student does not attain a score at or above the stipulated percentage on the assessment test administered in MI 415.

The student will be placed on immediate probation if a recorded violation of the code of ethics occurs at any time. The code of ethics can be found in the program clinical education manual and student handbook.

The student will be removed from program probation when:

  1. The stipulated cumulative grade point average is achieved, providing it is by the completion of the following semester.
  2. The terms of probation are met.

Students can be placed on program probation only one time.


Dismissal of the student from the medical imaging program will result if any one of the following occurs:

  1. The student commits a "serious" infraction of the code of ethics, or violates a program policy that states program dismissal (see individual program policies). If a student is dismissed and files a grievance, they must follow the university policy on the grievance process. During this time, the student cannot attend medical imaging classes.
  2. The student fails to meet the terms of probation.
  3. The student does not earn a grade of "C-" or above in all medical imaging courses (any course with a MI code), as well as BIO 121 and BIO 122 and PHY 117 and PHY 118 (If taken off-campus, a minimum grade of "C" is required).

If a student is dismissed a second time, he or she will not be re-admitted.


Once a student is dismissed from the medical imaging program, he or she may apply for re-admission for the following year unless the reason for dismissal was an ethical violation. (Students dismissed for ethical violations will not be re-admitted.) This is due to the sequential nature of the curricula. The student has the opportunity to submit a letter of intent to the department chair for re-admission into the program no later than the end of the semester following the semester in which the student was dismissed. The request will be considered providing the following criteria are met: an achieved overall GPA of 2.75; successful completion of all criteria that were the reason(s) for the initial dismissal; and the provision that clinical space is available. Once re-admitted, minimum GPA requirements apply and the student cannot be placed on probation again.

In addition, students who wish to be considered for re-admission must first grade-replace all MI and/or science courses in which a grade of "C-" or above was not earned. Previous performance in both clinical and didactic courses will also be considered. Notification of re-acceptance will be in writing from the department chair prior to June 1 for the fall semester, or January 1, depending upon what semester this student is re-entering.

Depending upon the reason for the original dismissal as well as the length of time until the student re-enters, students may be required to audit specific program and/or cognate courses previously completed as a stipulation for re-admission. These courses can only be taken as audit and cannot earn credits if successfully taken previously. The requirements for re-admission will be communicated to the student in writing for consideration of acceptance of the re-admission offer. Failure by the student to agree to the conditions for re-admission will result in the offer being revoked. In addition, all re-admitted students must successfully repeat all previously completed clinical competencies on a pass/fail basis only. If re-admission is granted, minimum GPA requirements, as stated above, apply. In addition, if a student is required to audit lab courses, a fee for monthly radiation badges will be the responsibility of the student.

The medical imaging department reserves the right to make changes in these policies as the need arises.