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Fall 96 - Spring 97

Fall 1996
Spring 1997


Fall - 1996

Title: The Relationship Between Thera-Band and Free Weights

Authors: Ardire, Deborah R., Caughey, Cynthia S., Kubistek, Kimberly A., Sikora, Kathleen L.

Abstract: The relationship between Thera-Band and free weight upper body exercise was investigated based on the measurement of heart rate. Eleven females (18-47 yrs.) and five males (30-52 yrs.) participated in the study. The subjects were positioned supine on a weight lifting bench and performed single arm bench press exercise (shoulder horizontal adduction/abduction concurrent with elbow extension/flexion) using either Thera-Band or free weights. Four trials were performed with each arm using yellow, red, blue and silver. Thera-Band and four trials using 1, 3, 5, and 7 pound free weights. Trial order was randomly assigned. The Thera-Band was secured to the weight bench and the unstretched length was measured from the point of attachment on the weight bench to the subjects olecranon process. The rate of exercise was 60 beats per minute for two minutes for all trials. Heart rate was measured by a NELLCOR N-10 portable pulse oximeter while the subjects were supine every 30 seconds from rest during exercise, and every minute for three minutes during recovery. Data was gathered over a two day period, eight trials per day. Steady state exercising heart rate values were analyzed using a one way repeated measure analysis of variance (P<0.05). A Bonferroni's post hoc test was used to determine differences between mean values. The results indicate that yellow Thera-Band is not statistically different than lifting 1-3 lbs., red Thera-Band is not statistically different than lifting 1-5 lbs., blue Thera-Band is not statically different than lifting 3-5 lbs., and silver Thera-Band is not statistically different than lifting 5-7 lbs. These results equate Thera-Band grades to free weights. The ability to interchange Thera-Band and free weights allows the occupational therapist to utilize both modalities within a therapeutic treatment program.

Year: Weekend, Fall 1996

Chair/Reader: S. Smith, T. Swartwood

Title: Return to Work Following Carpal Tunnel Surgery

Authors: Bringenberg, C., Liebross, S., Munshower, S., Snoha, B.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between occupational therapy (OT) treatment and the number of days between carpal tunnel surgery and the date a patient returns to work. This was a retrospective study in which the number of days between carpal tunnel surgery and the date subjects were able to return to work were tabulated. Data from two Northeastern Pennsylvania physician clinics on male and female patients who had carpal tunnel surgery between January 1994 and May 1996 were used. The subjects were divided into two groups, those that received OT (21.7 + 18.1: n=30 females and 17 males, 18-65 years old) and those that did not receive OT (30 + 22.6:n = 14 females and 10 males, 18-65 years old) after carpal tunnel surgery. A t-test was used to analyze the number of days between carpal tunnel surgery and returning to work for both groups. The number of days for those subjects receiving OT was 21.7 + 18.1 and those not receiving OT was 30 + 22.6 respectively. There was no significant difference between the OT group and the no OT group (P=0.0964). However, OT treatment tended to reduce days lost from work. Seventy-five percent of subjects receiving OT post-surgically returned to work within 30 days verses only 58 percent of no OT subjects. A power test using the current results suggests that increasing the sample size of the no OT group by 24 subjects will provide significance between the two groups. This study demonstrates that occupational therapy tends to reduce days lost from work after carpal tunnel surgery. Further research is necessary to validate the findings of this study.

Year: Weekend, Fall 1996

Chair/Reader: S. Smith, B. Velde

Keyword: Carpal tunnel surgery, work

Title: Comparison of retrograde massage and manual edema mobilization on upper extremity edema

Authors: Malia, M., Lichty, T., McGough, K., Westover, L., Andrea, E.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of manual edema mobilization (MEM) and retrograde massage (RT) in reducing upper extremity edema. Seven subjects with upper extremity edema were randomly assigned to either a MEM group (X + SD: 2 men, 1 woman, 61+9.85 years) or RM group (2 men, 2 women, 71.5+3.11 years). Each group received 9 treatments over a 2 to 4 week period. Arm volume was measured in milliliters before and after each treatment using a water displacement volumeter. A two way analysis of variance indicated no difference between pre- and post-treatment arm volumes for MEM, 585 + 129.84 vs 573 + 121.32, and RM, 511.25 + 79.25 vs 496.88 + 67.81. In addition, there was no difference in pre-treatment volumes between treatments 1 and 9 for MEM, 605 + 132.73 vs. 565 + 126.95, and RM, 513.75 + 67.02 vs. 508.75 + 91.47. It appears that MEM may be more effective at reducing edema over time when comparing the pre-treatment 1 and post-treatment 9, 605 + 132.73 vs. 553.33 + 116.07, to the pre-treatment 1 and post-treatment 9 of RM, 513.75 + 67.02 vs. 502.5 + 89.48. Due to the limited number of subjects in this study, further research is required to determine the effectiveness of MEM and RM techniques.

Year: Weekend, Fall 1996

Chair/Reader: S. Smith, G. Fisher

Keyword: Edema

Title: The Use of Humor in Treatment of Pain with Arthritis

Authors: Goin, K., Carson, A., Gabries, C., Harms, K.

Abstract: This study investigated the affect of viewing humorous and informative videotapes on pain perception in individuals with Rheumatoid Arthritis (R.V.). 12 women and 1 man, with a diagnosis of RA and over the age 50, volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were randomly placed in two groups. One group (n-7) viewed a humorous videotape (HV) and the second group (n-6) viewed an informational videotape (IV) on RA. Standardized hand exercises were performed for 5 minutes using the Power Web exerciser. The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to measure pain perception before and after two exercise trials separated by two to six days. During one exercise trial (randomly selected), the subjects viewed either the humorous or informative video. Pre-test to post-test exercise change in MPQ scores from both groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. In addition, each group was individually analyzed using paired t-tests. The mean and standard error values in the non-video trial were -1.83 + 1.78 for the HV and .65 + 1.46 for the IV. For the video trial, .61 + 1.52 for the HV and -1.78 + 2.1 for the IV. The results of the Wilcoxon test indicated there were no differences between and within groups. The paired t-tests results suggest that viewing the RA informational video while performing Power Web exercise may reduce pain perception (p=.19). Viewing a humorous video during Power Web exercise increased pain perception when compared to the non-video trial (p=.04). The data suggests that an informational video was more effective at reducing pain perception than a humorous video during hand exercise in RA patients.

Year: Weekend, Fall 1996

Chair/Reader: S. Smith, C. Hischmann

Keyword: Humor

Title: Physicians Referral Practices and Their Knowledge of Occupational Therapy Functions

Authors: Pfisterer, A., Shaffer, M. J., Puri, R., Poluka, C.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine referral practices and characteristics of physicians who understand the functions of occupational therapy (OT). A systematic random sample stratified by region and practice was used to survey 192 physicians. A survey was designed to gather demographic data and ascertain the physician's knowledge of OT. Physicians were also asked to report their OT referral rate and their perceived knowledge of OT.

An Alpha level of .05 was used for statistical tests. In examining physician's knowledge of OT, geographic region was insignificant, whereas practice area was significant (F=3.350, p=.005), with those in physical medicine scoring highest and pediatricians scoring lowest. Gender was not a significant factor, and age was a factor only in regards to knowledge of conditions (r=.3653, p=.002). The influence of years of practice varied with type of OT knowledge tested.

Data gained from this study provides insight into the variety of referral practices and knowledge of OT among physicians.

Year: Weekend, Fall 1996

Chair/Reader: E. McLaughlin, M. Ciofalo

Keyword: Physicians referral

Title: The Meaning of Internet Usage in the Lifestyle of Adults Who Use a Wheelchair

Authors: Stambaugh, L. W., Vaxmonsky, J.G., Phillips, Sean T., Poggi, A. J.

Abstract: The Internet has modified the distribution of information. The Internet has been viewed as a revolutionary advance in technology with a greater impact on information exchange than both the telephone and television combined. Accompanying this change in information exchange comes a variety of individual interpretations regarding what this new technology means. As an emerging human occupation, Internet usage warrants further study and investigation. This phenomenological study sought to identify personal meaning of Internet usage for seven adult participants.

Common themes emerged from an analysis of the participants' responses. Fidler's Lifestyle Performance Model was used as a framework in the analysis of themes. From this, strategies and interventions may be developed from the theme analysis performed by the researchers. The Internet may serve as a valuable tool not only for information distribution, but also for future occupational therapy intervention.

Year: Weekend, Fall 1996

Chair/Reader: B. Velde, T. Swartwood

Keyword: Internet, occupation, phenomenology

Title: The Meaning of Occupational Therapy in Hospice

Authors: Karasek, G. K., Amariti, K.L., Abert, J.L., Erzar, K.A., Hutmacher, D.

Abstract: Occupational therapy is a service which is not understood in the realm of hospice care. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the meaning of occupational therapy in this setting. Informants from six hospices included: occupational therapists, family members, a patient, and health care professionals. Analysis of data revealed two primary themes (a) quality of life and (b) meaningful activities; four secondary themes (a) caring for the whole family, (b) hope, (c) lack of knowledge regarding occupational therapy services, and (d) fees for occupational therapy services; and one negative case--lack of occupational therapy services in the domain of hospice care. From this study, it was determine that the unique expertise of occupational therapy is not utilized to its fullest potential in hospice care.

Year: Weekend, Fall 1996

Chair/Reader: B. Velde, G. Fisher

Keyword: Hospice, phenomenology

Title: Coping Mechanisms in Women with Fibromyalgia

Authors: Sisson, V., Gresham, M., Stefonoski, B.

Abstract: This phenomenological study explored what allows some women to cope with the physical and psychological symptoms of fibromyalgia, to move on and no longer view these as their life's central focus. Its purpose was understanding the lived experience of fibromyalgia and identifying personally effective coping strategies that others with fibromyalgia may benefit from learning and applying.

Six participants were interviewed with open-ended questions. Data was analyzed and verified with participants. Stressors in the Physical, Psychological, and Social/Cultural domains were identified and specific coping strategies were discussed. In addition, the participants described more global coping strategies of "being alone" and "social support". Finally, a process of "coming to terms with fibromyalgia" was identified.

Implications for practice include the need for occupational therapists to consider stressors, coping strategies, and process mentioned above to facilitate lifestyle adjustment. These themes are intended to be used to guide collaborative exploration of the individual's whole and unique experience of the condition of fibromyalgia through enhancing the role of control in life and the treatment program. Engagement in meaningful, intrinsically worthwhile occupations will promote this process.

Year: Weekend, Fall 1996

Chair/Reader: B. Velde, C. Hischmann

Keyword: Fibromyolgia, coping, phenomenology


Spring - 1997

Title: Exploring the impact of the "Real Life Game" on adults with mild mental retardation.

Authors: Buckley, A. D., DeFazio, C. A., Miller, M. M.

Abstract: The effectiveness of the "Real Life Game" (RLG) for the development of living skills was examined in 9 participants between the ages of 20 and 40 with mild mental retardation. The instrumentation was a modified version of the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills (KELS), as well as questionnaires designed by researchers. These were used to measure the skills of participants in the areas of self-care, money management, safety and health, and transportation and telephone. Significance differences were found in the scoring of the experimental group within the areas of health and safety, and transportation and telephone (alpha=.05). No significant increase was found in performance within any sub-scales of the control group. Qualitative data further supports the use of this game as an effective alternative teaching method to typical classroom activities.

Year: Traditional, Spring 1997

Chair/Reader: C. LaJeunese, C. Hischmann

Keyword: ADLs, mental retardation

Title: The use of art: perceptions of occupational and art therapy overlap in psychiatric treatment.

Authors: Hagemann, Christman A., Maloney, L., Park, K., Winemiller, R.

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to describe the results of a qualitative study which portrayed how art is used in occupational and art therapy, and the therapists' perceptions of overlap in psychiatric treatment. A naturalistic research design and a phenomenological approach were utilized. Three occupational therapists and three art therapists were interviewed, and five of the six participants were observed in their respective field of practice. Analysis of the interview data revealed four common themes (1) benefits of art, 2) misuse of art, 3) process, and 4) overlap in treatment. Two individual themes derived from the data analysis of the occupational and art therapists were identified as 1) art vs. craft, and 2) understanding therapeutic self respectively. The results of this study indicate art therapists perceive more overlap in the use of art in psychiatric treatment than do occupational therapists. This study can be used as a foundation for future research in this area, as well as a framework for further exploration to more clearly explain the role delineation of occupational and art therapy. In addition, results may benefit occupational and art therapists in their psychiatric practices by encouraging communication between disciplines to maximize the quality of patient care.

Year: Traditional, Spring 1997

Chair/Reader: B. Velde, C. LaJeunese

Keyword: Art therapy

Title: Exploration of Adaptations within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Environment.

Authors: Byk, K., Clair, J., Donnelly-Kensell, L., Giacomini, K., Moscatiello, C.

Abstract: The investigators conducted this study to add to the body of knowledge about the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, and to discover if any adaptations are being made within these units, in the interest of the neonates' special needs. The methodology of the study involved interviewing 10 nurses and observing the NICU environments to collect data. Data analysis resulted in the formulation of themes pertaining to any environmental adaptations that exist in the NICU. A qualitative, descriptive, case study design guided this research. The settings included 2 New Jersey medical centers that provided comprehensive NICU services. The results of the study demonstrated a need for adaptations in NICU environments, while also indicating the absence of occupational therapists as actively involved members of the treatment team. Suggestions are provided regarding the potential role of occupational therapists in this setting.

Year: Traditional, Spring 1997

Chair/Reader: G. Fisher, B. Velde

Keyword: Neonatal intensive care unit

Title: Clinical reasoning of a novice versus an experienced occupational therapists: A qualitative study.

Authors: Hoff, T., Kvashay, D., Manross, P., Moreau, V., & Welch, D.

Abstract: The clinical reasoning process is an important aspect of occupational therapy practice. The purpose of this critical, focused ethnography was to compare the clinical reasoning process of an experienced and novice therapist. Individual semi-structured interviews are conducted with an experienced and a novice therapist after each had reviewed a sample case study to help elicit the clinical reasoning process. Observations of the clinical setting were conducted. Themes which emerged include definitions of clinical reasoning, sources used when reasoning, factors influencing clinical reasoning, ability to prioritize, patient viewed as an individual, patients' role in treatment, and clinical reasoning as an evolving process. Similarities and differences between the therapists were noted and discussed. Implications for practice, education, and future research were identified.

Year: Traditional, Spring 1997

Chair/Reader: B. Velde, J. Cipriani

Keyword: Clinical reasoning

Publications/Presentation: Presented as : Hoff, T., Kvashay, D., Manross, P., Moreau, V. & Welch, D. (1997) Clinical Reasoning of a Novice Versus an Experienced Occupational Therapist: A Qualitative Study. 1997 AOTA Annual Conference: Orlando, FL.

Published as: Gibson, D., Velde, B., Hoff, T., Kvashay, D., Manross, P., Moreau, V. & Welch, D. (2000). Clinical reasoning of a novice versus an experienced occupational therapist: A qualitative study. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 12, (4), 15-31.

Title: The move from the clinic to academia: Why occupational therapists become educators.

Authors: Brown, C. B., Gatto, J. L., Hufnell, M. K., & Cipriani, J.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore why occupational therapists decided to become educators in the academic setting and the factors involved in the decision making process. Other issues in the life of an educator were explored, such as the positive and negative aspects of being an occupational therapy (OT) educator. Three open-ended questionnaires were sent to each of the 96 accredited OT programs in the United States. One hundred forty three questionnaires were returned. For each question, responses were sorted into categories and then combined into themes. Themes illustrated the move from the clinic to academia, being an educator, and staying in education. Recommendations for recruitment and retention of educators were made, as were suggestions for further research. It was concluded that the academic environment has much to offer to new educators from the simple joy of teaching to the flexibility of the academic environment. The natural bridge from teaching clients to teaching students must be fostered if new educators are to be recruited to meet the educational needs of the next century.

Year: Traditional, Spring 1997

Chair/Reader: J. Cipriani, G. Fisher

Keyword: OT education

Publication/Presentation: Presented as: Brown, C.B., Gatto, J.L., Hufnell, M.K., Cipriani, J. (1997) The Move From Clinic to Academia: Why Occupational Therapists Become Educators. AOTA Annual Conference: Orlando, FL.

Title: Factors affecting family involvement in occupational therapy treatment: The family's perspective.

Authors: Antos, S., Faulkner, R., and Lapina, E.

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the family member's point of view as to which factors would either support or impede family involvement in therapy. A survey of ten questions and a cover letter was sent with client permission to the family members of clients in both physical disabilities and psychiatric disabilities settings. Eighteen surveys were returned. Overall, the three factors judged to be the most important by family members in both settings were gaining knowledge about family member's conditions, additional training to assist family member, and opportunities to attend therapy. Results were also examined according to type of setting. The results of the study may be used to create better service delivery to clients of occupational therapy and their families.

Year: Traditional, Spring 1997

Chair/Reader: J. Cipriani, L. Shah

Keyword: Family involvement